By John Peterson
Kharia, spoken in central-eastern India, is a member of the southern department of the Munda kinfolk, which kinds the western department of the Austro-Asiatic phylum, stretching from principal India to Vietnam. the current learn offers the main vast description of Kharia thus far and covers all significant parts of the grammar. Of specific curiosity within the number of Kharia defined the following, is that there's no proof for assuming the lifestyles of parts-of-speech, resembling noun, adjective and verb. quite capabilities resembling reference, amendment and predication are expressed via one among syntactic constructions, observed right here as 'syntagmas'. the amount might be of equivalent curiosity to basic linguists from the fields of typology, linguistic concept, areal linguistics, Munda linguistics in addition to South Asianists as a rule.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Kharia (Brill's Studies in South and Southwest Asian Languages)
The internet versions of the Ethnologue5 give a total of 278,500 speakers for 1994 (14th edition, 2000) and 292,000 in India for 1997 (15th edition, 2005). 6 The question of whether Kharia is endangered is difficult to answer. In the short term, it cannot be considered endangered, although the longterm chances of survival are more difficult to assess. ). Nevertheless, the language probably has more speakers now than at any other point in its history due to the size of the ethnic Kharia population, although it seems that an ever-increasing percentage of this population is choosing to rear their children in either Hindi or Sadri, so that many ethnic Kharia have neither an active nor a passive command of the language.
There are no native words with an /s/ or /hi in the coda. Where these are found, the contentive morpheme is invariably of Indo-Aryan (usually Sadri) origin, such as bes 'good', jinis 'animal, thing', sandeh 'doubt', etc. The nucleus may consist of a vowel or nasal. ga]. Similarly, dhol1Jge 'lean back and relax' and lon:Jgob, an alternative pronunciation of lore1J 'clean, pure' Rehberg (2003: 14) also cites the form /phophmt_a/ 'fungus' from Biligiri (1965: 11), presumably with [q] in the nucleus.
1 In fast speech the "echo-vowel" (and, less often, the glottal stop) is generally omitted. 1. 4. /g/ vs. /k/: fbi vs. fbh/: It! vs. y' /d/ vs. aru 'fool' It! vs. a 'tomorrow' /pi vs. /Ij/: eft 'open (of clouds), clear' I e1J 'return' (rm) /m/vs. /n/: JlOm 'bask in the sun' I JlOn 'drive (an ox-cart)' Ill vs. 1. PHONOLOGY 31 lrl vs. Is/: lrl vs. ilb 'night' go 1cf. o. a'l 'husk' lml vs. 1 Gemination Geminates of most consonants are allowed but only at morpheme boundaries: loton=nal [:Jt>n:a] [press=INF] 'press' Pairs such as the following show that consonant length, unlike vowel length, can be phonemic: 5.
A Grammar of Kharia (Brill's Studies in South and Southwest Asian Languages) by John Peterson