A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts by John L. Hayes PDF

By John L. Hayes

ISBN-10: 0890035083

ISBN-13: 9780890035085

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Extra resources for A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts

Sample text

The city wall of Ur he built for him. Commentary 1. Nanna is the name of a god and Nammu the name of a goddess. Sumerian has no morphological gender system, that is, there are no special markers for either inherently masculine or inherently feminine nouns. In most cases one word may be used for either gender; thus may mean either "god" or "goddess". In other cases, the masculine and feminine are formed from different roots: gud, "bull", ab2, "COW". To specifically mark gender, it is possible to add the word for "man" (&b) or "woman" (munus) after a noun.

The fact that the =-sign occurs both in the DN Nanna and the GN Urim5 is of course no accident, since Nanna is the city-god of Ur. One of the readings of the &-sign is g 3 , "main precinct of the city-god"; the sign itself may be a representation of a temple sitting on a platform. The writing, therefore, represents the "main precinct of the god Nanna". Urim5 is the long value of the sign; the short value is U&. Because of the piece-meal growth of Sumerology and the changing interpretations of scholars, it is not uncommon to find one and the same sign transliterated different ways.

In transliteration, signs comprising one word are linked by hyphens: kalam-ma, dieir-ra-ni, and so on. It is not always easy, however, to determine what is a "word" in Sumerian; this problem is discussed in Lesson One. Determinatives are an exception; no hyphens are used. It is occasionally the case that it is not sure how a particular Sumerian sign (or word) is to be read. Such doubtful or unsure readings are often presented in caps. For example, the word for "interest-bearing loan" in Sumerian is written .

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A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts by John L. Hayes


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