By WHO Regional Office for Europe
Moment variation The booklet offers air caliber guidance for 35 ingredients be aware of to give a contribution to the matter of pollution in Europe. during this moment version, the publication has been significantly up-to-date and multiplied based on new study findings and advances within the method of danger review. instruction values, that have been revised in a chain of specialist consultations, are meant to function a foundation for the institution of nationwide criteria and different keep an eye on measures had to defend public overall healthiness.
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Additional info for Air Quality Guidelines for Europe 2nd edition (WHO Regional Publications. European Series)
Source: IARC (12). risks are too small to be measured directly, either by animal studies or by epidemiological studies. The choice of the extrapolation model depends on the current understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis (13), and no single mathematical procedure can be regarded as fully appropriate for low-dose extrapolation. Methods based on a linear, non-threshold assumption have been used at the national and international level more frequently than models that assume a safe or virtually safe threshold.
By using unit risk estimates, any reference to the “acceptability” of risk is avoided. The decision on the acceptability of a risk should be made by national authorities within the framework of risk management. To support authorities in the decision-making process, the guideline sections for carcinogenic pollutants provide the concentrations in air associated with an excess cancer risk of 1 in a population of 10 000, 1 in 100 000 or 1 in 1 000 000, respectively, calculated from the unit risk. For those substances for which appropriate human studies are available, the method known as the “average relative risk model” has been used, and is therefore described in more detail below.
They have the character of recommendations, and it is not intended or recommended that they simply be adopted as standards. Nevertheless, countries may wish to transform the recommended guidelines into legally enforceable standards, and this chapter discusses ways in which this may be done. It is based on the report of a WHO working group (1). The discussion is limited to ambient air and does not include the setting of emission standards. In the process of moving from a “guideline” or a “guideline value” to a “standard”, a number of factors beyond the exposure–response relationship need to be taken into account.
Air Quality Guidelines for Europe 2nd edition (WHO Regional Publications. European Series) by WHO Regional Office for Europe