By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth variation Preface to 3rd version Preface to moment variation Preface to First variation Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists research? what's a sociolinguist? Why will we say an identical factor in several methods? What are the various methods we are saying issues? Social elements, dimensions and reasons part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups selecting your sort or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in numerous groups Language demise and language loss elements contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic types and multilingual international locations Vernacular languages ordinary languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and reliable languages making plans for a countrywide reputable language constructing a typical style in Norway The linguist's function in language making plans part II: Language version: specialize in clients 6. nearby and social dialects local version Social version Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech adjustments: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech good points: social dialect study Gender and social classification causes of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded gains of speech Age and social dialect info Age grading and language switch eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language swap edition and alter How do adjustments unfold? How can we research language switch? purposes for language swap part III: Language edition: specialize in makes use of 10. kind, context and sign up Addressee as a power on kind lodging concept Context, type and sophistication kind in non-Western societies check in eleven. Speech services, politeness and cross-cultural conversation The services of speech Politeness and deal with kinds Linguistic politeness in numerous cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self belief interplay Gossip The linguistic building of gender The linguistic development of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and conception Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social category, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness idea Ethnography of talking Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) severe Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and purposes Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols word list Index
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Additional resources for An introduction to sociolinguistics
Exercise 3(a) Consider example 2 above. What does it suggest about the limitations of a domain-based approach to language choice? Answer at end of chapter 24 Chapter 2 Language choice in multilingual communities Example 5 Oi Lin Tan, a 20-year-old Chinese Singaporean, uses three languages regularly. At home she uses Cantonese to her mother and to her grandfather who lives with them. With her friends she generally uses Singapore English. She learned to understand Hokkien, another Chinese language, in the smaller shops and market-place, but in large department stores she again uses Singapore English.
People may select a particular variety or code because it makes it easier to discuss a particular topic, regardless of where they are speaking. At home, people often discuss work or school, for instance, using the language associated with those domains, rather than the language of the family domain. Some describe this as ‘leakage’, suggesting it is in some way irregular – the code associated with one domain is ‘leaking’ into another. In fact, it is quite normal and very common. Particular topics may regularly be discussed in one code rather than another, regardless of the setting or addressee.
With her friends she generally uses Singapore English. She learned to understand Hokkien, another Chinese language, in the smaller shops and market-place, but in large department stores she again uses Singapore English. At primary school she was taught for just over half the time in Mandarin Chinese, and so she often watches Channel 8, the Mandarin television station, and she regularly reads a Chinese newspaper Liánhé ZFobào, which is written in Mandarin Chinese. During the other part of the time at primary school she was taught in a formal variety of Singapore English.
An introduction to sociolinguistics by Janet Holmes.