By Katy Gardner, David Lewis
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2012 | ISBN-10: 073567261X | PDF | 833 pages | 18 + 37 MB
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Additional resources for Anthropology, Development and the Post-Modern Challenge
We shall spend much of this book discussing such insights. The marginalisation of women by development projects which treat households as equal and homogeneous units is a case in point (Whitehead, 1981; Rogers, 1980; Ostergaard, 1992). This school of thought was radically to affect development studies during the 1970s. The Third World, it suggests, is not natural, but created through economic and political processes. Capital accumulation in the periphery is therefore unlikely to occur, both because of processes which suck it into the metropolitan centre, and because of wider international processes which take it outside the country.
Others sought careers outside academia in sectors where their skills could be utilised on a longerterm basis, working in fields as diverse as industry, agriculture, conservation and defence. In the US, opportunities for applied anthropology originated through the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which became a sponsoring body for research into local customs, political institutions and landholding patterns and rights. The gradual professionalisation and institutionalisation of development after the Second World War led to the creation of formal opportunities for applied anthropologists to work in development agencies or as private development consultants.
Debates on gender and development have also increasingly involved awareness of the structural influences of global inequality and colonialism on gender relations, and of the need for women in the South to empower themselves rather than be recipients of Northern benevolence (Sen and Grown, 1987). By the 1990s, neither modernisation nor dependency theory have survived intact as a viable paradigm for understanding change and transformation, or processes of poverty and inequality. We have already suggested that neither theory can realistically explain the problems of global inequality and poverty.
Anthropology, Development and the Post-Modern Challenge by Katy Gardner, David Lewis