By Robert Audi
* short intro to conception of knowledge/epistemology.
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Extra info for Belief, Justification, and Knowledge: an Introduction to Epistemology
It certainly docs not follow that ordinary seeing of the tree is indirect. Consider an analogy. Two perfect ball bearings can be intrinsically indistinguishable—have the same diameter and constitution—yet one be on my left and one on my right. Their intrinsic properties can thus be identical, while their relations (to me) differ: one is left of mc, the other right of me; hence they do differ in their relational properties. Similarly, the hallucination of a tree and the ordinary visual experience of a tree can be intrinsically indistinguishable, yet differ in their relations.
To say that would imply a counterpart of the sense-datum theory. At this point, however, the naive realist view must be revised. To begin with, the causal chain must be in a sense unbroken- To see why, consider a broken chain. Imagine that you saw me plant the tree and you remember my doing so. The planting is then the causal ground of your memory belief, as it is of mine, and we both remember my planting it. But suppose I had forgotten the event and thus no longer believed I planted the tree, then later came to believe, solely on the basis of your testimony, that I planted it, There is still a causal chain from my present belief back to the planting; for the planting produced your belief, which in a way produced your testimony, which in turn produced my present belief.
Both theories are, however, direct realist views, though they reject the idea that we just see things, as naive realism holds. Other similarities (and some differences) between the two theories will soon be apparent. The adverbial theorist stresses that we see (or otherwise perceive) things in a THE ADVERBIAL THEORY OF PERCEPTION 21 particular way and that they thus appear to us in that way. Often they appear as they are; sometimes they do not. In either case they are seen directly, not through intermediaries.
Belief, Justification, and Knowledge: an Introduction to Epistemology by Robert Audi