By Dr. Matthias Scherge, Dr. Stanislav S. Gorb (auth.)
Many of the foremost demanding situations dealing with modern day engineering technology are relating to miniaturization. during this box, important development should be made by way of learning Nature's strategies: bugs and different residing creatures have solved a few of the related difficulties in the course of their evolution. organic micro- and nanotribology goals to collect information regarding friction, adhesion and put on in such organic structures and to use this new wisdom, e.g. within the layout of micro-electro- mechanical platforms, the improvement of novel forms of monolayer lubrication, the discovery of latest adhesives, and the development of synthetic joints. via applying a mixture of methods from a number of disciplines -- physics, engineering, tribology, biology, and fabrics technology -- the authors elucidate the rules of various biomechanical structures that depend upon frictional surfaces or adhesive secretions to connect elements of the physique to each other or to connect organisms to a substrate. This account offers an exceptional place to begin for engineers and physicists operating with organic structures and for biologists learning friction and adhesion. it is going to additionally function a important creation for graduate scholars getting into this interdisciplinary box of research.
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Extra info for Biological Micro- and Nanotribology: Nature’s Solutions
It is assumed that the curvature of the meniscus is spherical. 4 Adhesion 29 portion of the ball, and rl and r2 are the radii of curvature. rl swings in plane and r2 out of plane. One plane is positioned perpendicular to the other. The Laplace pressure equals the surface tension divided by the spherical meniscus curvature. 41 ) where R is the radius of the ball and 6h and 6h are the contact-angles as shown in Fig. 15. The Laplace pressure can be reduced to l1p = "Y/rl when r2 » rl. 42) This approximation holds for the majority of experiments shown in this book.
The curves reflect the molecular resistance experienced by an approaching probe and can be measured by SFA and AFM (see inset). period length was found to be equal to the molecular diameter as shown in Fig. 18. These findings - obtained experimentally  and by computer simulation [109-113] - suggest that the molecules of the film are ordered in a layered structure. The magnitude of the in-plane order is described by the Debye-Waller factor, ranging between 0 and 1. , without any order, and 1 corresponds to the crystalline state at T = 0 K .
In the range of low coverage the pumping speed is constant. The measured water film thickness is the sum of the water film on the Si sample and on the tungsten STM tip, which is also oxide-covered. At a pressure below 10- 7 mbar the last monolayer of water desorbed. This was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy, which indicated a binding energy of oxygen caused by the bond with silicon. In the case of water coverage the oxygen peak would have been shifted to the value caused by the bond with hydrogen.
Biological Micro- and Nanotribology: Nature’s Solutions by Dr. Matthias Scherge, Dr. Stanislav S. Gorb (auth.)