By B. Belderok, J. Mesdag, D. A. Donner (auth.), D. A. Donner (eds.)
Wheat has an extended background of serving as an enormous nutrition crop to mankind. particularly within the Northern Hemisphere, it's been preferred as a massive resource of power via its carbohydrates, and in additional fresh occasions for its offer of necessary proteins. this mix of carbohydrates and proteins offers wheat its distinctive homes for making breads of alternative different types of tastes. throughout the process historical past, the standard of wheat has better stead ily, unquestionably for a very long time unintentionally, and for purposes little lower than stood. over the past one hundred fifty years our wisdom has elevated on farming and crop husbandry, on bringing approximately advancements via goal-oriented plant breeding, and on milling and baking know-how, resulting in the factors that we get pleasure from at the present time. This method will surely proceed as our wisdom of the genetic reservoir of wheat species raises. the ecu Cereal Atlas beginning (ECAF) keeps the purpose of in creasing and disseminating wisdom approximately cereal plants. inside of that scope ECAF has made up our minds to submit a e-book at the background of bread wheat in Europe, the advance of linked bread-making know-how, and the breeding of bread wheats through the 20th century. As ECAF is a Dutch starting place, its Board is especially happy to have came across 3 Dutch scientists prepared to give a contribution to this quantity. of them have served wheat technological know-how within the Netherlands for his or her complete clinical careers, spanning a interval beginning round 1955 and lasting for numerous a long time of very efficient wheat technological know-how development.
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Extra resources for Bread-making quality of wheat: A Century of breeding in Europe
5 MT being imported from other countries. This means that the contribution of EU wheat to total human consumption increased considerably over those 25 years. This change was prompted by the EU agricultural policy and had no technological basis. The higher utilization of EU wheats for bread making has also had its influence on the breeding, growing and marketing of wheat varieties with better bread-making qualities. In various countries, farmers grow an increasing proportion of high quality wheats, and millers have been able and willing to buy these wheats for making bread flour.
Another factor is the number of grains that can profit from this nitrogen: a high grain number tends to be coupled with a low protein level of the individual grain and vice versa. The protein level of the grains can be raised considerably by increasing the amount of N-containing fertilizers. Split nitrogen applications are common practice nowadays: a first application is given in spring (winter wheat in early spring, spring wheat at sowing), followed by a second and sometimes a third during the period from stem elongation until just before flowering.
They contain a low percentage of damaged starch (4-6% on a dry matter basis) and, therefore, have low water-absorbing capacity. They yield doughs of inferior handling quality (which give trouble in machine baking), and are critical in their mixing and fermentation requirements, so that they are more likely to fail in breadbaking. Soft-wheat flours require less mixing and fermentation than hard-wheat flours to give good results in the making of biscuits and/or biscuit-like products. 39 Hard-wheat flours contain a relatively high content of proteins and form a tenaceous, elastic gluten with good gas-retaining properties.
Bread-making quality of wheat: A Century of breeding in Europe by B. Belderok, J. Mesdag, D. A. Donner (auth.), D. A. Donner (eds.)