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1989b). Since the presence of a bolus will increase the distance from the aperture and the position at which measurements are made, the penetration depth must be determined with the bolus present, if appropriate. In the same document, this committee defined the effective field size of an applicator as the contour of 50"70 peak SAR measured at a depth of 5 mm below the surface of the muscle phantom. 1 Coherent and Incoherent Systems When using a system with more than one applicator a choice must be made between incoherent and coherent operation, as was mentioned in Sect.

66) where y = (ZY)112 is the complex propagation constant. If there is a discontinuity in the line a reflection will occur (V2 0). ---=-V1 exp [-yx] 23 The input impedance at any point along the line is: Z. 69) Zo cosh (yx)+ ZL sinh (yx) The impedance of the applicator is in general different from the characteristic impedance of the coaxialline (which is usually 50 ohm). In this case a reflection occurs at the applicator and a standing wave pattern is produced along the line. e. 68) Significant reflected power is undesirable not only because the efficiency of the system decreases but also because it may prove detrimental to the generator.

9 m and n are integers (but not both equal to zero) and define the number of half sine variations in the x- and y-directions, respectively, exhibited by the field. The medium within the applicator is assumed to have permittivity e and permeability Jl. The propagation constant Ymn is: Fig. 22. 1 Rectangular Waveguide Applicators W> wcmn where Wcmn is: Many radiative applicators are based on waveguides with rectangular cross-section (Fig. 22) operated in a TE mode. The electric field in this structure is found by solving Maxwell's equations subject to the boundary conditions which must be satisfied at the waveguide walls, which are taken to be perfect conductors.

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Complete Plumbing and Central Heating Guide by Jacson, Day

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