By Larissa Talmon-Gros
Increasing matters in regards to the world’s usual assets and sustainability stay an important factor for worldwide improvement. for that reason numerous political projects and techniques for eco-friendly or resource-efficient development either on nationwide and overseas degrees were proposed. A middle section of those projects is the advertising of a rise of source or fabric productiveness. This dissertation examines fabric productiveness advancements within the OECD and BRICS nations among 1980 and 2008. by means of utilizing the concept that of convergence stemming from monetary progress thought to fabric productiveness the research offers insights into either points: fabric productiveness advancements normally besides potentials for sped up advancements in fabric productiveness which therefore could permit a discount of fabric use globally. the result of the convergence research underline the significance of policy-making in regards to expertise and innovation coverage permitting the creation of resource-efficient services and products in addition to know-how move and diffusion.
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Extra info for Development Patterns of Material Productivity: Convergence or Divergence?
Setting c ¼ 1/AL in Eq. 3) yields ! K 1 F ;1 ¼ FðK; ALÞ AL AL ð4:4Þ The term K/AL represents the amount of capital per unit of effective labor and the term on the right-hand side F(K,AL)/AL corresponds to Y/AL the output per unit of effective labor. It is defined: k ¼ K/AL, y ¼ Y/AL, and f(k) ¼ F(k,1). So, Eq. 4) can be rewritten as y ¼ f ðkÞ ð4:5Þ Thus, output per unit of effective labor can be written as a function of capital per unit of effective labor. If one unit of effective labor corresponds to one worker, then the labor productivity function corresponds to the production function per capita.
R. Hicks (1932), who argues that “a change in the relative prices of the factors of production is itself a spur to invention and to inventions of a particular kind— directed at economising the use of a factor which has become relatively expensive” (Hicks 1932, p. 124). This is the basic idea of the “induced innovation” hypothesis. In consequence, induced innovations might also influence the direction of technological progress. It took until the 1960s and 1970s until the hypothesis was more prominently discussed.
The use of natural resources and their influence on the environment are substantially influenced by the form and efficiency of the dominant technologies. The extent to which resource-intensive or resource-extensive industries play a role in the economy is relevant for its structure and therefore patterns of resource use. Additionally, the stage of economic development influences resource use. It is assumed that the more industrialized a country is, the lower its resource use per unit GDP. Given these factors and their interdependencies, it is very likely that resource use will continue to intensify in the future and make existing scarcities more acute (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, p.
Development Patterns of Material Productivity: Convergence or Divergence? by Larissa Talmon-Gros