Download e-book for kindle: General Systems Theory - Problems, Perspectives, Practice by Lars Skyttner

By Lars Skyttner

ISBN-10: 981256389X

ISBN-13: 9789812563897

Structures theorists see universal ideas within the constitution and operation of structures of every kind and sizes. They advertise an interdisciplinary technology tailored for a common software with a standard language and zone of innovations. so that it will resolve difficulties, make techniques and are expecting the long run, they use theories, versions and ideas from the big zone of common platforms thought. This method is selected as a method to beat the fragmentation of information and the isolation of the expert but additionally to discover new techniques to difficulties created via prior ‘solution of problems.’ This revised and up to date moment version of basic platforms thought — rules and purposes comprises new structures theories and a brand new bankruptcy on self-organization and evolution. The booklet summarizes many of the fields of platforms conception and its program platforms technology in a single quantity. It presents a brief and readable reference consultant for destiny studying containing either basic theories and functional functions with no using complex arithmetic.

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Embracing such a pragmatic view on reality, design or redesign becomes the key concept of the systems perspective when it is about to change the world for the better by building new or improved systems. The vast majority of human systems have not been designed at all — they just happened. Design replaces the guesswork by model building and optimization. It is concerned with how things ought to be, with combining resources to attain goals. This involves processes necessary to understand the problem, to generate solutions and to test solutions for feasibility.

This guarantees, that in the chain of cause and effect, the effect never occurs before the cause. The velocity of light here seems to have an exception which up to now not has got its explanation. The spectral effect is an example of 26 GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY: PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES, PRACTICE one of the main qualities of quantum theory, namely non-locality, the technical name for a signal-less, instantaneous action at a distance. Another remarkable effect is that electrons will not jump from one energy level to another while they are being watched, the zeno effect or the principle of inseparability.

Explain the properties or behaviour of the system. — Finally, explain the properties or behaviour of the unit in focus as a part or function of the system. Synthesis does not create detailed knowledge of a system's structure. Instead, it creates knowledge of its function (in contrast to analysis). Therefore, synthesis must be considered as explaining while the scientific method must be considered as describing. Systems thinking expands the focus of the observer, whereas analytical thinking reduces it.

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General Systems Theory - Problems, Perspectives, Practice by Lars Skyttner

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