By Prof. Philippe Mercier, G. Brassier, St. Velut (auth.), Prof. Dr. Marc Sindou, Prof. Dr. Yves Keravel, Prof. Dr. Aage R. Møller (eds.)
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Extra info for Hemifacial Spasm: A Multidisciplinary Approach
In: Graham N, Gramm MD, House W (eds) Disorders of the facial nerve. Raven Press, New York, pp 313-317 28. Tarnai Y, Ywamoto YM, Tsujimoto T (1986) Pathways of the blink reflex in the brain of the cat. Interneurons between the trigeminal nuclei and the facial nucleus. Brain Res 199: 19-25 29. Tojima H, Aoyagi M, Inamura H, Koike Y (1994) Clinical advantages of e1ectroneurography in patients with Bell's palsy, within two weeks after onset. Acta Otolaryngol (Stock h), [Suppl] 511: 147-149 30. Willer JC, Lamour Y (1975) Etude electrophysiologique du reflexe de clignement chez Ie macaque.
To AGo"" ()oMtI) 11 to 10 '1 .. 10 " lID 10 Fig. 2. Age distribution (years) of female and male patients when first treated with botulinum toxin (group HFS J) .. :. 1 ID. s 10 '0 .. 10 to zo Localization of abnormal movements at onset could be determined in 50 patients in group HFS I. Most patients (35/50, that is 70 percent) reported that initial twitches occurred in the periocular region. Some patients could even localize more precisely the first symptoms to the inferior part of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
In blepharospasm the EMG discharge pattern is quite different, as the firing of the involved motor units is asynchronous and the discharge rate is within normal limits. In post-paralytic synkinesis, EMG reveals a perfect synchrony of the discharging motor units in the inEssential Facial Hemispasm Synchronous "Burst" in Extrafacial Muscles Normallnteference Pattern during Voluntary Muscle Contraction **- M. 0rtI. O<:uli Light Moderate Strong Fig. 1. Needle EMG in the orbicularis oculi muscle M. ,oldu< Fig.
Hemifacial Spasm: A Multidisciplinary Approach by Prof. Philippe Mercier, G. Brassier, St. Velut (auth.), Prof. Dr. Marc Sindou, Prof. Dr. Yves Keravel, Prof. Dr. Aage R. Møller (eds.)